Hanalei is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kauai County, Hawaii, United States. The population was 450 at the 2010 census. Hanalei means "lei making" in Hawaiian. Alternatively, the name Hanalei also means "crescent bay" and may be indicative of the shape of Hanalei Bay. Hanalei is located at 221224N159303W / 22.20667N 159.50083W / 22.20667; -159.50083 (22.206653, -159.500713), near the mouth of the Hanalei River on the north shore of the island of Kauai. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1km2), of which 0.6 square miles (1.6km2) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52km2) is water. The total area is 20.73% water. In the early 19th century the Imperial Russians was present here. In 1815 the German physician and agent of the Russian-American Company, Georg Anton Schffer, came to the Hawaiian islands to retrieve goods seized by Kaumualii, chief of Kauai island. On arrival he became involved with internal Hawaiian politics, and Kaumualii planning and manipulating to reclaim his own kingdom of Kauai from Kamehameha I with the help of the Russian Empire. Kaumualii signed a "treaty" granting Tsar Alexander Iprotectorate over Kauai. From 1817 to 1853 Fort Elizabeth, near the Waimea River, and two other Russian forts near Hanalei were part of the tsarist Russian America.